Internal combustion engine

Abstract

Claims

Sept.- 6, 1938. G. R. GEHRANDT INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Jan. 4, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet l @mij 1 um. uw Tb bv IN VENTR Sept. 6, 1938. G. R. GEHRANDT 2,129,172 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Jan.. 4, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Sept. 6, 1938 UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE 40 Claims. This invention relates in general to internal combustion engines, but more particularly to twol cycle engines of the Diesel type, and specifically to engines having opposing pistons; i. e. engines with two power pistons working in one cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, the fuel being ignited between the two power pistons, and an air pump being provided for furnishing the scavenging and com'- bustion air. In order to adapt this type of engine for high speed work, and thereby increase the power output of the engine per piston displacement unit, it is necessary to construct the engine, and particularly the moving parts thereof, as light as possible, and furthermore it is very essential that the engine be completely balanced in every Irespect. It is one of the objects of the present invention to provide an improved, compact and selfcontained engine with a minimum amount of accessories mounted on the outside 0f the engine., Another object of the invention is to increase the specific output of the engine, i. e., the amount of horse power obtainable per piston displacement unit. It is another object of the invention to provide a simple method of controlling the pressure of the scavenging and combustion air and lthereby control the power output of the engine. It is a further object of the invention to improve the mechanical as well as thermal efficiency of the engine and to simplify the design thereof, reducing the cost of manufacture. Another object of the invention is to completely balance the enginel statically as well as dynamically. A still further object of the invention is to provide a simple means of supercharging the en- 40 gine. To the attainment of these ends and the accomplishment of other new and useful objects as will appear, the invention consists in the features of novelty in substantially the construction, combination and arrangement of the several parts hereinafter more fully described and claimed and shown in the accompanying drawings illustrating this invention, and in which Figure 1 is a vertical. longitudinal, sectional view of an engine of this character constructed in accordance with the principles of this invention and with parts broken away and parts omitted. J Figure 21s a detail, horizontal, sectional view taken on line 2 2, Figure 1. (Cl. 12S-51) Figure 3 is a detail, horizontal, sectional view taken on line 3 3, Figure 1, with parts omitted. Figure 4 is a detail, horizontal, sectional view taken on line 4 4, Figure 1, with parts omitted. Figure 5 is a detail, sectional view taken on 5 line 5 5, Figure 1'. Figure 6 is a vertical, sectional view of one of the guides for the connecting links between the pstonand the crank shaft. Figure 7 is a diagrammatic view as taken on l0 line 1 1, Figure l. Figures 1 and 8 are on a reduced scale with respect to Figure 1 and on the same scale with respect to Figure 8. `Figure 8 is a detail sectional view taken on line 8 8, Figure 1, on a reduced scale. Figure 9 is a sectional view similar to Figure 2, with partsomitted, and with cylinders further apart, and a different style of intake and discharge valves. Figure 10 is a sectional view similar to Figure 20 3 with cylinders further apart, different style of filter and a control relief valve between the cylinders. Figure 11 is a detail, horizontal, sectional view similar to Figure 4, with cylinders further apart, 25 with injection nozzles. w Figure 12 is a detail vertical sectional view taken on line I2 I2, Figure 10. Figure 13 is a detail vertical sectional view taken on line I3 -I3, Figure 10. Figure 14 is a detail, horizontal, sectional view, similar to Figure 8, Aon an enlarged scale, with cylinders further apart and a different arrangement of exhaust. Figure 15 is a detail view partly in vertical 35 section and partly in elevation, similar to Figure 1, with parts broken away and parts omitted. Referring more particularly to the drawings. the numeral I0 designates the engine housing having encased therein the power cylinders Il, in each of which cylinder pistons I2 and I3 reciprocate in directions towards and away from each other, and as the construction and operation of each cylinder with its pistons is the same the description of one will apply equally as well to all of them. Connected to, or formed integral with the upper power piston I3 is an air piston I4, which is preferably of a diameter considerably greater than the diameter of the piston I3, and the air piston I4 is reciprocable in an air cylinder I5 that is disposed above and adjacent to the upper end of the power cylinder II., .A connecting rod or link I6 connects the lower power piston I3 with the crank pin I'li of a crank 55 shaft I8, which latter is mounted for rotationin suitable bearings I9. Connecting rods or links 23, here shown as comprising two rods, one on each side of the piston I3, form connections between the piston I3 as well as the air piston I4 with crank pins 2| of the crank shaft I8, so that during the movements of the pistons I2 and I3 toward and away from each other, the crank shaft I3 will be rotated. The cylinder II is provided adjacent its upper end with inlet ports 22 to permit of the entrance of air into the cylinder II beneath the piston I3. The cylinder is also provided with `outlet ports 23 spaced a considerable distance below the inlet ports 22 to permit of the exit of the exhaust gases from the cylinder into an exhaust manifold 24, which manifold being entirely encased in engine housing I3, preferably completely surrounds the cylinder II, and which exhaust manifold is provided with an exhaust outlet opening 25 for the products of combustion. A water jacket 23 completely surrounds the exhaust vmanifold 24 and also a greater portion of the power cylinder II, and this water jacket is also entirely encased in engine housing I3. A crank case 21 is provided in which the crank shaft I3 and crank pins I1 and 2| rotate, the cylinder II opening at its bottom into the crank case. Arranged between the air cylinder I5 and the end of the power cylinder II is a chamber 29 which has.V communication with the air cylinder, and 23 designates passageways forming communication between the chamber 29 and the crank case 21 to form passageways or guides through which the connecting rods or links 23 that connect the piston I3 with the crank pins 2|, freely pass. The air piston I4 operating in the air cylinder I5 may be provided with depending projections or shoes I4a which serve as a means for assisting in guiding the piston in the cylinder I5 and to resist lateral strain of the connecting rods 23, and thereby relieve to a considerable extent, the lateral pressure on the piston I4.V The chamber 29 also serves as an inspection space which opens through the housing of the engine, and a closure 30 is provided for such opening, and which closure may be constructed of any suitable material either transparent or opaque. An air inlet valve. 3| controls an air inlet opening in the end of the air cylinder I5 and an air` ,.let opening 33 to admit air under atmospheric `which chamber 31 the air inlet valve 3| 0per' pressure into a receiving 'chamber 34, which preferably encor'npasses the air chamber, and which chamber or space 34 isv preferably employed for conditioning the air, and this may be accomplished by means of a filter 34ab within the space 34, or in any other suitable manner. An opening 35 forms communication between the chamber or space 34 and the air inlet valve chamber 31 through the top plate 36, and in ates, and 42 designates a communicating opening between the, air chamber or space 43 and the chamber 39, in which the outlet valve 32 operates, and which chamber 39 receives`compressed air from the air cylinder I5, through the outlet opening controlled by the outlet valve 32, the chambers 31 and 33 being separated from each other by means of a separating partition 43. With this construction it will be manifest that as the filter 34 fits within the opening 33 air will pass through the illter and into the space or chamber 34 and will now through the opening 35 into the chamber 31, the suction of the piston I4 on its downward stroke, opening the valve 3I, permitting the air to flow into the air chamber I5. Upon the upward stroke of the piston I4, the pressure created upon the air in the cylinder I5 will unseat the valve 32 to permit the air to be discharged from the cylinder I5 into the chamber 39, and thence through the opening 42 into the space or chamber 43, which also encom- -passes a portion of the cylinder I5, and which chambers or spaces 34 and 43 are separated from each other by means of partitions 44, as shown more clearly in Figure 3 of the drawings. and which chambers are entirely encased in the engine housing I0. 'I'he chambers 31 and 33 are provided with a cover plate 4I forming one of the walls of the chamber. With this construction it will be manifest that the compressed air will be transferred into the space or chamber 43 and will then be discharged through a connecting pipe or passage 45 into an air storage chamber 43, which surrounds the power cylinder II, which is also entirely encased within the engine housing I0. While in Figure 1 the passage 45 is shown as being located outside of the casing or housing I3, it is to be understood that this passage may be located and housed within the casing I0, as shown more lclearly in Figure 13.v Compressed air from the air storage chamber 46 is admitted to the power cylinder II through the inlet ports 22, when the latter are opened by reason of the bottom edge of the upper power piston I3 uncovering such ports. This will occur when the crank pins 2I are in top dead center positions, and crank pin I1 is in the lower dead center position. In this position the lower power piston I2 will then open the outlet or exhaust ports 23, permitting escape of the exhaust gases from the cylinder II and also permitting scavenging of the cylinder II by the air entering the power cylinder through the ports 22 and discharging through the ports 23. In the wall of the passage 45 in the form of the invention shown in Figure 1, and in the wall of the casing I3 in the form of the invention shown in Figures i0 and 13, is provided an opening 41 to receive a valve seat 43, which latter is secured in position in any suitable manner, and the valve seat is provided with a hub portion 43* having internal screw threads. A relief valve 49 controls an opening 43` in the valve seat 43 and the valve is held to the seat by means`v of a spring 53,'which latter is controlled by means of a controllever 5I. The valve 49 is preferably providedv with a tubular portion which telescopes with a portion of the valve controlled lever 5I, and within these tubular portions the spring 53 is located.' 'I'he spring exerts its stress in a direction to seat the valve 43. The lever 5I is provided with a threaded boss '52 fitting into the threaded hub or portion 43e. justed and therefore also the tension of the spring 50 may be varied. A boss 53 on the control lever 5I is provided by means of which the lever may be operated manually by hand or automatically by being connected either to the governor of the engine or to any other suitable device for actuating the lever to control the speed and power of the engine. An oil pan 54 is also provided for the crank case. The power fuel is supplied through an injector nozzle 55, which latter is connected by means of a pipe 56 to the source of supply, the fuel nozzle discharging into the cylinder II between the pistons I2 and I3, through a suitable opening 51. It is thought that the operation of this improved type of engine will be clearly understood from the foregoing specication, but briefly stated it is as follows. As is well known, Diesel engines depend for the ignition of their fuel oil upon high temperatures raised by the compression of atmospheric air. Assuming now for the sake of explanation, that the engine is started from a cold cond1- tion, and that the lower -power piston I2 is in its lowermost position, that is the bottom dead cener position, as shown more clearly in Figure 7, and the upper power piston I3, with the air piston I4 in its highest position, that is the top dead center position. In this position of the pistons, the power cyllnder II, the air cylinder I and all the communicating spaces and ports are lled with air of atmospheric pressure. y When starting the engine by turning the crank shaft I8, the piston I2 will move upwards and the piston I3 downwards, that is towards each other, therebyvclosing the ports 22 and 23 and compressing the air between the two pistons I2 and I3, as shown in Figure 1. 'I'he air piston I4 will also move downward together with the piston I3, causing a partial vacuumbetween the air piston I4 and the air cylinder head 38. I'his will cause the air inlet valve 3| to open, due .to the difference in pressure below and above the inlet valve 3i. Atmospheric air will continue to stream into the air cylinder I5 above the piston, until the air piston I4 reaches the lowest or bottom dead center position. In this position the air between the two power pistons I2 and I3 will be highly compressed, whereby the temperature of the air will be raised sumciently high to ignite fuel oil which is injected into this highly compressed air through the fuel oil injector nozzle 55. r Due to the now following explosion the two pistons I2 and I3 will move apart', the air piston I4 will move upwardly together with the piston I3, causing the air inlet valve 3I to be closed thereb and the trapped air in the air cylinder to compressed until the pressure in the air cylinder I5 reaches a pressure sufficient to open the air outlet valve 32. The compressed air from cylinder I5 will be discharged into the spaces and chambers 39, 43, 45 and 46, and by continued rotation of the crank shaft I3, the air pressure in these spaces will be air storage or built up high `enough to form an pressure around the power cylinder II, and from which air storage air for scavenging and combustion purposes is discharged through the ports 22, during the operation of the engine, whenever the ports 22 are uncovered by the piston I3. Ordinarily, air piston I4 is designed just large enough to supply the amount of ail' necessary for the combustion of fuel, plus a certain amount for scavenging the power cylinder and plus another amount for losses through the exhaust ports 23. With the present invention, however, it is proposed to construct the air piston large enough to furnish besides the customary amount of air an additional air supply for supercharging. Supercharging. of course, is only possible when with a larger amount of fuel oil simultaneously, a larger amount of air for the combustion of this increased amount of fuel, is furnished. This means that when the engine is running under normal load condition, that is, when not supercharging, the enlarged air piston of this engine will cause an increase in the air pressure in the passages and chambers 39, 42,43, 45 and 46. Since it is desired in an economical engine to operate with the smallest amount of air pressure for the scavenging and recharging of the power cylinder II, this invention provides suitable means to discharge the excess air supply by the piston I4 when running under normal load. One method of accomplishing this result embodies a relief valve 49 the function of which is to maintain a certain fixed pressure after the spring 50 has been set for this predetermined pressure. If it is now desired to supercharge the engine. that is to supply an excess of fuel oil by a fuel oil pump designed for maximum overload and a correspondingly necessary excess supply of air. then in this case all that is necessary to do is to increase the tension of the spring 50, so that the relief valve 49 will open at a higher pressure in the spaces and chambers 39, 42, 43, 45 and 46, or not at all. The control mechanism of the fuel oil pump may of course be connected with the operating mechanism of the relief valve 49 or the air inlet valve 3i in some well known manner and be operated either manually or automatically, separately or combined. It is to be understood that the relief valve 49, shown in the drawings, is only used as an example for accomplishing supercharging with the simplest means possible. However, there are other devices with which supercharging is possible. For instance, a design permitting the suction valve 3I to be kept open during a fraction of the discharge stroke of air piston I4, so that a portion of the incoming air is being returned to the atmosphere again. Air of higher pressure is now available to stream into the powerv cylinder II through the inlet ports 22. As this higher `air pressure means a greater quantity of oxygen for the same piston displacement, a greater amount of oil can be burnt for the same piston displacement, and consequently the mean effective pressure between the two piston I2 and I3 will rise, and thereby increase the output or horse power of the engine by such supercharging. With this improved construction it will be manfest that one of the power pistons and the air piston are of an integral construction and at the same time forming a cross head with the guide shoes I 4a for guiding and relieving the air piston I4 of lateral strain. A portion of the air cylinder is surrounded by the receiving chamber 34 for conditioning the incoming atmospheric air, and the other portion of the air cylinder is surrounded by another chamber 43 for the compressed air that is discharged from the air cylinder. 'Ihe air storage space completely surrounds the power cylinder, with the result that the pressure supplied toiithe cylinder will be constant and it will also be manifest that the relief and pressure controlling valve will control the supply of air to the cylinder and will also control the functioning and power of the engine. With this improved construction the air cylinder is of a greater capacity than customary with engines of this character, so as to supply an excess of air for supercharging. While it has heretofore been attempted to balance oppositely operating pistons to reduce vibrations, by causing the upper piston to operate with less piston speed with respect to the operation vof the lower piston, it has been found that `in the prior constructions it is not possible to equalize the torque and power effects caused by such pistons on the crank shaft. By the arrangement in the present invention, and particularly as shown in Figure 15, these difficulties and objections have been overcome. It will be possible with the present invention to provide the upper portion of the power cylinder and consequently the upper power piston I3 respectively of a larger bore and diameter than the lower power cylinder and piston I2, to more equally balance the moving parts of the engine, and it will further be manifest that with the present invention the exhaust manifold and the water cooling jacket completely surround the power cylinder and are disposed inside of the engine casing, so that the parts projecting beyond the plane of the outer surfaces of the engine housing will be reduced to a minimum. It is also possible with this invention to provide any number of pipes 24 with radiator lns and which pipes extend from the manifold 24 into the air storage chamber 46 around the power cylinder, and thus transmit heat from the manifold 24 to the combustion air in the storage chamber. It is also possible with this design to omit the water cooling entirely and use air cooling instead on account of proximity of air storage chamber and exhaust manifold. While the preferred form of the invention has been herein shown and described, it is to be understood that various changes may be made in t'he details of construction and inthe combination and arrangement of the several parts, within the scope of the claims, without departing from the spirit of this invention. What is claimed as new iszl. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons operating in the cylinder in directions towards aniaway from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger formed integral with one of said pistons, guides other than the plunger rim and integral with said plunger for resisting lateral strain of the plunger, hubs also integral with said plunger, actuating rods pivotally connected by one end to said hubs, means for directing air from said compressor into the cylinder and between said pistons to be further compressed by the pistons, and . means for injecting fuel into the uid which is compressed between said pistons. 2. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons operating in the cylinderin directions towards'and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger formed integral with one of said pistons, guides other Y than the plunger rim and integral with said plunger for resisting lateral strain of the plunger, hubs also integral with said plunger, actuating rods pivotally connected by one end with said hubs, means for directing air from said compressor into the cylinder and between said pistons to be further compressed by the pistons, and means for injecting fuel into the uid which is compressed between said pistons, the said inlet and exhaust outlet being respectively controlled by said pistons. 3. An internal combustionengine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons operating in the cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger formed integral with one of said pistons, means for directing air from said compressor into the cylinder and between said pistons to be further compressed by the pistons, means for injecting fuel into the iluid which is compressed between said pistons, a housing encompassing the air compressor and said cylinder, and an exhaust manifold with which said exhaust outlet has communication, said exhaust manifold encompassing said cylinder and disposed within said housing. 4. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet. pistons operating in the cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger formed integral with one of said pistons, means for directing air from said compressor into the cylin- ,der and between said pistons to be further compressed by the pistons, means for injecting fuel into the fluid which is compressed between said pistons, a housing encompassing the air compressor and said cylinder, an exhaust manifold with which said exhaust outlet has communication, said exhaust manifold encompassing said cylinder and disposed within said housing, and a water jacket surrounding said manifold and also disposed within said housing. 5. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons reciprocable in the cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger connected to one of said pistons, a chamber for receiving and storing compressed air from said compressor and with which chamber saidinlet has communication whereby compressed air from said chamber will be supplied between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, said chamber completely encompassing said cylinder for substantially the entire length of the latter, the cylinder inlet being controlled by one of said pistons, and means for/injecting fuel into the compressed air between said pistons. 6. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons reciprocable in the cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger connected to one of said pistons, a chamber for receiving and storing compressed air from said compressor and with which chamber said inlet has communication whereby compressed air from said chamber will be supplied between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, said chamber completely encompassing said cylinder for substantially the entire length of the latter, the cylinder inlet being controlled by one of said pistons, means for injecting fuel into the compressed air between said pistons, an exhaust manifold encompassing said cylinder and with which manifold the cylinder outlet has communication, and a casing housing said cylinder, compressor, chamber and exhaust manifold. 7. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder, pistons reciprocable in said cylinder in directions towards and away 4from each other, a fluid compressor for supplying compressed fluid to the cylinder between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, means for injecting fuel into the fluid which is compressed between the pistons, and positively actuated means operating automatically to control the degree of pressure of the fluid supplied to said cylinder. 8. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder, pistons reciprocable in said cylinder in directions towards and away from each other,` a fluid compressor for supplying compressed uid to the cylinder between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, means for injectingl fuel into the fluid which is compressed between the plstons, and means operating automatically to control the degree of pressure of the fluid supplied to said cylinder, the last recited means embodying an escape opening, a loaded valve for controlling said escape opening, and means for varying at will the stress of said load upon the said valve. 9. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder, pistons reciprocable therein towards and away from each other, a fluid compressor, a storage chamber for receiving and storing the fluid from said compressor, means for supplying the compressed fluid to the cylinder between, the pistons to be further compressed thereby, means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between the piston, and an exhaust manifold for the cylinder, said manifold being in close proximity to said chamber whereby thecompressed fluid in the chamber will be heated thereby. 10. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder, pistons reciprocable therein towards and away from each other, a uid compressor, a storage chamber for receiving and storing the fluid from said compressor, means for supplying the compressed fluid to the cylinder between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between the pistons, and an exhaust manifold for the cylinder, said manifold being in close proximity to said chamber whereby the compressed uid in the chamber will be heated thereby, the said chamber and exhaust manifold encompassing the cylinder, and a casing housing said cylinder, chamber and exhaust manifold. 11. An internal combustion engine embodying aV cylinder, pistons reciprocable therein towards and away from each other, a compressor cylinder, a plunger reciprocable therein and'esponsive in its operation to one of said pistons, means for supplying the fluid from said compressor to the cylinder between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, air receiving chambers' adjacent the compressor cylinder, one of saidv chambers having an opening for receiving atmospheric air, there being an inlet opening forming communication between the last said chamber and said compressor cylinder, there being an outlet opening from said compressor cylinder to the other of said chambers, valves controlling the said inlet and outlet openings and themselves controlled by the operation ofsaid plunger, and a casing housing said cylinders and said valves. 12. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder, pistons reciprocable -therein towards and away from each other, a compressor cylinder,- ` a plunger reciprocable therein and responsive in its operation to one of said pistons, means for supplying the fluid from said compressor to the cylinder between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, air receiving chambers adjacent the compressor cylinder, one of said chambers having an opening for receiving atmospheric air, there being an inlet opening forming communication between the last said chamber and said compressor cylinder, there being an outlet opening erating in the compressor cylinder, means for supplying the compressed fluid to the ilrst said cylinder to be further compressed between the pistons, means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between the pistons, said fluid compressor cylinder being of a size to provide a dis-i placement by said plunger of a quantity of compressed uid considerably greater than the amount of compressed fluid necessary for combustion in the first said cylinder under normal loads, and' means whereby the degree of pressure of the fluid which is supplied from the compressor cylinder to the first said cylinder may be varied at lWill. 14. An internal combustion engine embodying an engine casing, a cylinder housed in said casing, pistons reciprocable in the cylinder and controlling the inlet and outlet ports thereof, a fluid compressor cylinder adjacent the first said cylinder, a plunger reciprocable in the compressor cylinder, a compressed air storage chamber encompassing the first said cylinder, said inlet forming acommunication between said chamber and the first said cylinder, an exhaust manifold completely encompassing the first said cylinder and with which the exhaust outlet of the first said cylinder communicates, all of said parts being superposed in close proximity to each other and entirely housed within said casing, and means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between said pistons. 15. An internal combustion engine embodying an engine casing, a cylinder housed in said casing, pistons reciprocable in the cylinder and controlling the inlet and outlet ports thereof, a uid compressor cylinder adjacent the cylinder, a plunger reciprocable in the compressor cylinder, a compressed air storage chamber encompassing the first said cylinder, said inlet forming a communication between said chamber and the first said cylinder, an exhaustmanifold completely encompassing the first said cylinder and with which the exhaust outlet of the first said cylinder communicates, all of said parts beingsuperposed in close proximity to each other and entirely housed within said casing, means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between said pistons, and a water jacket encompassing said manifold and the first said cylinder and being also completely housed within said casing. 16. An internal combustion engine embodying a casing, a cylinder housed therein, pistons operalso within the casing, means for directing the compressed fluid from the chamber into the cylinder between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, an exhaust manifold adjacent said chamber, and also within the casing, and .means for directing a portion-of the exhaust gases from said manifold into Isaid chamber and out of commingling relation with the fluid in said chamber. 17. An internalA combustion engine embodying a casing, a crank case within and at the lower portion of the casing, a fluid compressing chamber -iluid storage chamber may be supplied to the cylinder to be further compressed therein, said cylinder having open ends and extending into and communicating respectively with the crank case and the said inspection chamber, a cooling chamber within the casing and disposed intermediate the crank case and the compressed fluid storage chamber, an exhaust manifold within said cooling chamber and encompassing said cylinder and lwith which manifold the exhaust outlet of the cylinder has communication, opposed pistons operating in the cylinder and respectively controlling the fluid inlet and the exhaust outlet of the cylinder, a plunger operatively connected with one of the pistons and operating in the compressing chamber to compress fluid therein, and means for injecting fuel into the compressed iluid between the said pistons. 18. An internal combustion engine embodying a casing, a crank case within and at the lower portion of the casing, a fluid compressing chamber within and adjacent the top of the casing, a compressed fluid storage chamber below and having communication with said compressing chamber, an inspection chamber between the fluid compressing chamber and the compressed'fluid storage chamber, a cylinder encompassed by the fluid storage chamber and having communication therewith whereby air under pressure from the fluid storage l/chamber may be supplied ,to the cylinder to be further compressed therein, said cylinder having open ends and extending into and communicating respectively with the crank case and the said inspection chamber; a cooling chamber within the casing and disposed intermediate the crank case and the compressed fluid storage chamber, an exhaust manifold within said cooling chamber and encompassing said cylinder and with which manifold the exhaust outlet of the cylinder has communication, opposed pistons operating in the cylinder and respectively controlling the fluid inlet and the exhaust outlet of the cylinder, a plunger operatively connected with one of the pistons and operating in the compressing `chamber to compress fluid therein, means for injecting fuel in to the compressed iiuid between the said pistons, and means for directing fluid from said compressing chamber into said cooling chamber. 19. An internal combustion engine embodying power eects of said piston on the crank shaft, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger formed integral with one of said pistons, guides other than the plunger rim and integral with said plunger for resisting lateral strain of the plunger, hubs also integral with said plunger, actuating rods pivotally connected by one end to said hubs, means for directing air from said compressor into the cylinder and between the pistons to be further compressed by the pistons, and means for'injecting fuel into the fiuid which is compressed between said pistons. 20. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons reciprocable in the cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger connectedto one of said pistons, a chamber for receiving and storing compressed air from said compressor and with which chamber said inlet has communication whereby compressed air from said chamber will be supplied between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, said chamber completely encompassing said cylinder for a greater part of the length of the latter, the cylinder inlet being controlled by one of said pistons, said compressor embodying a cylinder and said compressed air chamber partially, encompassing said compressor cylinder, and means for injecting fuel into the compressed air between said pistons. ' 21. An internal combustion engine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons reciprocable in the cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger connected to one of said pistons, a chamber for receiving and storing compressed air from said compressor and with which chamber said inlet said chamber will be supplied between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, said chamber completely encompassing said cylinder for a greater part of the length of the latter, the cylinder inlet being controlled by one of said pistons, said compressor embodying a cylinder and a compressed air receiving and storage chamber partially encompassing the compressor cylinder, therel being an unobstructed passage forming communication between the air receiving and storage chambers, and means for injecting fuel vinto the compressed air between said pistons. 22. An internal combustion Aengine embodying a cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust outlet, pistons reciprocable in the cylinder in directions towards and away from each other, an air compressor embodying a reciprocable plunger connected to one of said pistons, achamber for receiving and storing compressed air from said compressor and with which chamber said inlet has communication whereby compressed air from said chamber will be supplied between the pis- 'tons to be further compressed thereby, said chamber completely encompassing said cylinder for a greater part of the length of the latter, the cylinder inlet being` controlled by one of said pistons, said compressor -embodying a cylinder and a compressed air receiving and storage chamber partially encompassing the compressor cylinder, there being an unobstructed passage forming has communication, whereby compressed air from communication between the air receiving and storagechambers, ,an engine casing, said compressed air receiving and storage chambers and the said connecting passage therebetween being all housed within said casing. and means for inreceiving and storing compressed air from saidl compressor and with which chamber said inlet has communication whereby compressed air from said chamber will be supplied between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, said chamber completely encompassing said cylinder for a greater part of the length of the'latter, the cylinder inlet being controlled by one of said pistons, said compressor embodying a cylinder, a compressed air receiving and storage chamber' partially encompassing the compressor cylinder, there being an unobstructed passage forming communication between the air receiving and storage chambers, an air inlet chamber out of communication with the air receiving and storage chambers, said air inlet chamber partially encompassing the compressor cylinder, and means for injecting fuel into the compressed air between the pistons. 24. An internal combustion engine embodying a casing, a cylinder housed therein, pistons operating in the cylinder, a compressor also in the housing, a storage chamber for the compressed fluid from the compressor, said storage chamber also withinthe casing, means for directing the compressed fluid from the chamber into the cylinder between the pistons to be further compressed thereby, an exhaust manifold adjacent said chamber and also within the casing, and means for directing a portion of the exhaust gases from said manifold into said chamber and out of commingling relation with the fluid in said chamber, the last recited means embodying pipes extending from said manifold into the said chamber, said pipes being in communication with the manifold and out of communication with said chamber. y 25. An internal combustion engine embodying a casing, a crank case within and at the lower portion of the casing, a fluid compressing chamber within and adjacent the top of the casing, a compressed fluid storagechamber below and having communication with said compressing V chamber, an inspection chamber `between the fluid compressing chamber and the compressed fluid storage chamber, a cylinder encompassed by the fluid storage chambergand having communication therewith whereby air under pressure from the fluid storage chamber may be supplied to the cylinder to be further compressed therein, said cylinder having open ends and extending into and communicating respectively with the crank case and the said inspection chamber, a cooling chamber Within Athe casing and disposed intermediate the crank case and the compressed fluid storage chamber, an exhaust manifold within said cooling chamber and encompassing said cylinder and with which manifold the exhaust outlet of the `cylinder has communication, opposed pistons operating in the cylinder` and respectively controlling the fluid inlet and the exhaust outlet of the cylinder, a plunger operatively connected with one of the pistons and operating in the compressing chamber to compress fluid therein, a portion of the compressed fluid storage chamber partially encompassing the said compressor chamber, and means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between the said pistons. . 2,6. An internal combustion engine embodying a casing, a crank case within and at the lower portion of the casing, a fluid compressing chamber within and adjacent the top of the casing, a compressed fluid storage chamber below and having communication with said compressing chaml ber, an inspection chamber between the fluid com-l pressing chamber and the compressed fluid storage chambena cylinder encompassed by the fluid storage chamber and having communication therewith whereby air under pressure from the fluid storage chamber may be supplied to the cylinder to be further compressed therein, said cylinder having open ends and extending into and communicating respectively with the crank case and the said inspection chamber, a cooling chamber within the casing and disposed intermediate the crank case and the compressed fluid storage chamber, an exhaust manifold within said cooling chamber and encompassing said cylinder and with which manifold the exhaust outlet of the cylinder has communication, opposed pistons operating in the cylinder and respectively controlling the' fluid inlet and the exhaust outlet of the cylinder, a plunger operatively connected with one of the pistons and operating in the compressing chamber to compress uid therein, a portion of the compressed fluid storage' chamber partially encompassing said compressor chamber, aifluid inlet chamber for supplying air to the compressor chamber, said fluid inlet chamber partially encompassing the fluid compressing chamber, and means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between said pistons. y 27. An internal combustion engine embodying a casing, a'crank case within and at the lower portion of the casing, a fluid compressing chamber within-and adjacent the top of the casing, a compressed fluid storage chamber below and having communication with said compressing chamber, an inspection chamber between the fluid compressing chamber andv the4 compressed fluid storage chamber, a cylinder encompassed by the fluid storage chamber and having communication therewith whereby air under pressure from the fluid storage chamber may be supplied to the cylinder to be further compressed therein, said cylinder having open ends and extending into and communicating respectively with the crank case and the said inspection chamber, a cooling champartially encompassing the said compression chamber,A there being an unobstructed passage forming communication between the said compressed fluid receiving and storage chambers, and means for injecting fuel into the compressed fluid between the said pistons. 28. The method of supercharging an engine of the type described, which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily necessary to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing inf a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads, by increasing the pressure of the air supplied for scavenging and for combustion. y 29. The method of supercharging an engine of the type described, which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily necessary to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads, by increasing the` pressure of the air supplied for scavenging and for combustion, and also providing a combustion volume between the pistons in excess of the volume required under such normal conditions. 30. The method of supercharging an engine of the type described, which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily necessary to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads, by superheating the air before it enters the combustion chamber, and simultaneously therewith providing a combustion volume between the pistons in excess of the volume required under such normal load conditions. 31. The method of'supercharging an engine of the type described, which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily necessary to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surroundingthe power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads, by providing a combustion volume between the pistons in excess of the volume required under such normal conditions. 32. The method of supercharging an engine of the type described, which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily necessary to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess ofthe amount required under such normal loads and superheating the air before it enters the combustion chamber. 33. The method of supercharging an engine of the type described, which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the `amount ordinarily necessary to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of -air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads, by increasing the pressure of the air supplied for scavenging and combustion, by providing a combustion chamber between the pistons in excess of the volume required under such normal conditions and also by superheating the air before it enters .the combustion chamber. 34. The method of supercharging and regulating an engine oi the type described which consists in supplying thereto -an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily required to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously -therewith storing in a reservoir `completely fsurrounding. the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads and regulating the pressure in the air `reservoir by letting part of the air escape through a manually or automatically controlled valve at the air reservoir. 35. 'I'he method of supercharging and regulatlng an engine of the type described which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily required to produce 'power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount oi air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads and regulating the pressure in the air reservoir by letting part of the air taken into the air compressor cylinder escape through the suction valves during a part of the return stroke of the air compressor piston maintaining thereby the required air pressure corresponding to the fuel requirements of any load from zero to a maximum overload. 36. The method of supercharging and regulating an engine of the type described which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily required to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads and regulating the pressure in the air reservoir by letting part of the air escape through a manually or automatically controlled valve at the air reservoir, and simultaneously regulating the volume of the combustion chamber. 37. The method of supercharging and regulating an engine of the type described which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily required to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely. surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads and regulating the pressure in the air reservoir by letting part of the air escape through a manually or automatically controlled valve at the air reservoir, and simultaneously regulating the volume of the combustion chamber and also regulating the temperature in the air reservoir. 38. The method of supercharging and regulat- .ing an engine of the type described which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily required to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber an amount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads and regulating the pressure in the air reservoir by letting part of the air taken into the airl compressor cylinder escape through the suction valves during a part of the return stroke of the air compressor piston and simultaneously therewith regulating the volume of the combustion chamber. 39. The method oi' supercharging and regulating an engine of the type described which conl the type described, which consists in supplying thereto an amount of fuel in excess of the amount ordinarily necessary to produce power for a normal load, and simultaneously therewith storing in a reservoir completely surrounding the power cylinders and supplying to the combustion chamber anamount of air in excess of the amount required under such normal loads, by increasing the pressure of the air supplied for scavenging and combustion and by superheating 10 the air before it enters the combustion chamber. GUSTAV R. GEHRANDT.

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Cited By (4)

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    US-2016032824-A1February 04, 2016Achates Power, Inc.Exhaust Layout With Accompanying Firing Sequence For Two-Stroke Cycle, Inline, Opposed-Piston Engines
    US-3570463-AMarch 16, 1971Daniel E NelsonRegenerative combustion cycle piston engine
    US-4516539-AMay 14, 1985Andreen John FInternal combustion engine
    US-4543917-AOctober 01, 1985Lapeyre James MInternal combustion engine