Tractor-conveyed implement and hitch therefor

Abstract

Claims

E53 lmml ivf; um l /NL/EA/roe, CHAR/ E5 H. MART/N 3 Sheets-Sheet l rop TN; F h JY MARR/5, ,(05015 F05 TER a( HAR R/.S ,f mm /J/f WS CJH. MARTIN Filed May 13, 1942 TRACTOR-CONVEYED VIMPIJEHWNT AND HITCH THEREFOR TRACTOR-CONVYED IMPLEMENT AND HITCH THEREFOR Filed May 13, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 C. H. Amm 414,111 TRACTOR-CONVEYED IMPLEMENT AND HITCH THEREFOR Filed May 13@ 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 'l /NVE/vrob W' CHARLES H. MART/N l Y HARR/J K/EcH, FOJTER d HARK/5 FDR THZ FIRM mum sA A fro/uvam Patented Jan. 14, 1947 TRACTOR-CONVEYED IMPLEMENT AND HITCH THEREFOR Charles H. Martin, Huntington Park, Calif., assignor to Howard B. Rapp and Sally Rapp, copartners doing business as Towner Manufacturing Co., Santa Ana., Calif. Application May 13, 1942, Serial No. 442,825 19 Claims. My invention relates to a device conveyed by a tractive vehicle, and a hitch for connecting such device to such vehicle, and, since it finds particular utility embodied in an implement such as an offset disc harrow conveyed by a tractive vehicle, such as a tractor, the objects and advantages of my invention will be described in connection with such embodiment, it being understood that my invention is not restricted to an offset disc harrow or an implement or a hitch construction therefor adapted for connection to a tractor. Control devices have been combined with tractors for the purpose of automatically controlling the depth of cut of an implement drawn by the tractor and for the purpose of elevating it for transportation in an inoperative position. Linliages have been provided for connecting such a tractor and such a control means to an implement, and such linkages have met with some success when applied to such implements as plows. However the problem of providing a satisfactory offset disc harrow and hitch for connecting it to such a tractor and such an automatic control means involves many problems not presented by an implement such as a plow and its connection to such a tractor and means. An odset disc harrow should be made of substantial weight in order to insure penetration of its discs in the ground to the desired extent. The automatic control means and elevating means of those tractors most commonly used with the hitches heretofore employed provide insufficient force to properly control the depth of cut or to elevate to transporting position an offset disc harrow of the desired weight. It is an object of my invention to provide an offset disc harrow and a hitch for connecting it to a tractor and to the control and elevating means thereon, which includes a linkage presenting the most favorable leverage whereby the minimum force is required for such means to control the depth of cut of theharrow and to move it to transporting position. As the control and elevating means of the tractor lift the implement which the tractor conveys and which is trailing the tractor, there is of course an upwardly directed force exerted upon the tractor. If this force is directed upon the tractor adjacent the rear or driving Wheels thereof, the traction of the tractor is diminished. It is an object of my invention to provide an implement and a hitch mechanism for connecting it to a tractor and a control and elevating means thereon whereby the upward force directed upon the tractor by the implement during the lifting of the implement is reduced to a minimum value and applied where it diminishes to the least extent the traction of the tractor. More specifically, it is an object of my invention to provide such an implement and hitch mechanism which include a linkage presenting the most favorable leverage for the transmission of the upwardly directed force upon the tractor by the implement during the lifting of the implement whereby such force is reduced to a minimum and to apply this upwardly directed force at the maximum distance from the rear or traction wheels of the tractor so that the component of such force exerted upon the rear wheels is of minimum value. When a disc barrow is operated offset from the tractive vehicle by which it is conveyed, side draft forces substantially at right angles to the longttudinal edge oi the tractor are applied tothe tractor, tending tc cause it to turn in the direction in which the harrow is oifset. These side draft forces are very substantial and, if exerted through the linkage ordinarily employed for connecting a tractor with an automatic control and an elevating means, render it extremely laborious, if not impossible, for 'the operator to convey the harrow in a straight line; It is an object of my invention to provide a barrow and a hitch for connecting it to a tractor and its control and elevating means, ,in which such side draft forces exerted upon the tractor are reduced to their minimum and resisted by mechanism other than the linirage from the harrow to the depth control and elevating means. Likewise, in the operation of a disc harrow in offset position there is a tendency for the harrow to rotate about its horizontal longitudinal axis and to apply to the linkage connecting the implement to the control and elevating means of the tractor, forces most substantial and destructive. The hitch mechanisms employed with such tractors and implements other than harrows are unable to overcome these forces, with the result that the harrow is not caused to penetrate the lground at the same depth at both of its ends. 1t is an object of my invention to provide a disc harrow and a hitch mechanism for connecting it to a tractor and the control and elevating means thereon, which provide the most favorable leverage possible for the resistance of such forces, whereby the implement is caused to cut to a uniform depth without imposing destructive stresses upon the hitch mechanism or implement. It is still another object of my invention to provide an implement of the class described and a hitch for connecting it to a tractor and itsocontrol and elevating mechanism by which the tendency of the harrow in offset operation to cause the tractor to turn from a straight path .is overcome and, more specifically, to accomplish this purpose by varying the relative pressures of contact of the front wheels with the ground. In offset disc harrows of conventional construction drawn by a tractor with control or elevating means, the frames of both the front and rear gangs of the harrow are at an angle with each other and at an angle other than 90 with the longitudinal axis of the tractor. As the degree o1' offset of the harrow on either side of this longitudinal axis is varied, the distance between the implement and the harrow is therefore likewise varied. lf the variation of degree of offset of a harrow connected to a tractor and control and elevating mechanism thereon various the distance between the harrow and the implement, the force which must be exerted by the control and elevating means to maintain a desired depth of cut or tolift the harrow varies Widely for different positions of offset of the harrow. To secure automatic and uniform control of the depth of out of the harrow and uniform elevation of the harrow upon the application of uniform force by the elevating mechanism, numerous complicated adjustments of such mechanism would be necessary for each change in degree of offset of the harrow. It is an object of my invention to provide an implement of the class described and a hitch for connecting it to a tractor and control and elevating mechanism thereon by which the degree of oiTset of the harrow may be varied on either side of the longitudinal axis of the tractor without varying the distance between the implement and the tractor parallel to such axis. Still another object of my invention is the provi-sion of such an implement and hitch by which the two gangs of the harrow may be easily and quickly shifted relative to each other. Still another object of my invention isthe provision of an oiset disc harrow which operates to out a furrow on both sides of the harrowed strip, whereby none of the harrowed earth is discharged upon the unharrowed ground. Still another object of my invention is the provision of an offset disc harrow and a hitch for connecting it to `a tractorand the control and elevating mechanism of the tractor, whereby the implement and hitch may be quickly and easily attached to and detached from the tractor and such mechanism. Another object of my invention is the provision of an oifset disc harrow and a hitch of the character described, which includes means for varying, either during travel of the harrow or when the harrow is stationary, the depth of cut of the discs of one gang relative to the depth of cut of the discs of the other gang to overcome the forces which would be exerted upon the tractor by the harrow in offset position if the discs of both gangs penetrated the ground to the 'same depth. The automatic control and elevating means customarily employed on tractors with implements other than harrows are not required to lift weights comparable with the weight of an offset disc harrow. This is for the reason that such implements as plows have a tendency to ride out of the ground and elevate themselves. The rear gang of an offset disc harrow rigidly connected to the front gang overcomes this tendency of the front gang and comprises a dead weight much greater than, and located at a greater distance from the tractor than, the weight of implements such as plows. In order for the depth control means of tractors designed for operation with such implements as plows to operate eiciently conveying a disc harrow, it is necessary to modify such means to make allowance for the increase in such weight and moment. It is accordingly an object of my invention to provide in an implement and hitch therefor means for modifying the depth control mechanism of a tractor to counteract the increase in weight to be elevated by such mechanism when an implement such as a plow is removed therefrom and a disc harrow is attached thereto. Embodiments of my invention capable of performing these objects and providing these advantages and others are described in the fol lowing specification, which may be better understood by reference to the accompanying drawings in which: Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a harrow and hitch of my invention conveyed in operative position by a tractor; Fig. 2 is a plan view of the harrow and hitch illustrated in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the same harrow and hitch with the harrow in its transporting position; Fig. 4 is a fragmentary perspective view of a portion of the hitch of my invention; Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary elevational view, partially in section, of the means of my invention modifying the automatic depth control and lifting means of the tractor; Fig. 6 is a front elevational view taken as indicated by the arrow 6 of Fig. 1; Fig. 7 is a modified form of harrow and hitch of my invention in operative position; Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken as indicated by the line 8-8 of Fig. 7; Fig. 9 is a sectional view taken as indicated by the line 9-9 of Fig. 8; Fig. 10 is a front elevational view taken as indicated by the arrow Ill of Fig. 7; and Fig. 11 is a plan view of a portion of the hitch illustrated in Fig. 7. Referring to the drawings, which are for illustrative purposes only, and particularly to Figs. 1 to 4, the numeral 2| indicates a tractor, illustrated in broken lines. The tractor 2| includes a frame 22, a front axle 23 with front wheels 24 mounted thereon, and a rear axle 25 with traction wheels 26 mounted thereon and driven through suitable mechanism by the tractor engine. The hitch and implement of my invention illustrated in these figures may be employed with automatic depth control and elevating mechanisms of various kinds. In the drawings I have illustrated a control and elevating mechanism such as disclosed in Patents No. 2,118,180 and No. 2,118,181 of H. G. Ferguson. This mechanism includes a cylinder 21 to which iiuid under pressure is supplied through a line 28 from a source of supply, such as a pump driven by the engine. The flow of fiuid through the line 28 is controlled by a manually actuated valve 29, which also controls the passage of fluid from the cylinder 2l through a pipe 30 to a suitable storage tank. Mounted for reciprocation in the cylinder 2l is a piston 3| connected by a piston rod 32 to one end of a lever 33 pivoted at 34 intermediate its ends. The lever 33 on the opposite side of the pivot 34 is bifurcated to provide two arms 35, each of which is pivoted to the upper end of a pull rod 36, the lower end of each rod being swingably mounted upon an elevator lever or' link 31. Each of the links 31 is pivoted at its forward end to the frame 22 forwardly of the rear axle 25. \ The numeral 39 indicates an automatic depth control mechanism which, as best illustrated in Fig. 5, includes a telescoping valve member 4|| mounted for telescoping movement between a portion 4| of the frame 22 and a bell crank 42 to which one end of the valve member 40 is secured. A compression spring 43 is mounted around the valve member 40 with one end bearing against the frame portion 4| and the other end abutting a collar 44 mounted on the valve member 4|). The spring 43 resists the collapsing movement of the valve member 40. One arm of the bell crank lever 42 is pivoted at 45 to the tractor 2|, andthe other arm is pivoted at 46 to one end of a link 41. The other end of the link 41 is pivotally secured to a yoke 48 adjacent its upper end. When an implement of conventional construction and weight, for which the draft control mechanism 39 is designed, is secured to the lower end of the yoke 48 and the link 31, the valve member 48 operates to automatically provide fluid under pressure to the cylinder 21 when the draft force necessary to draw such an implement exceeds a predetermined value. Thissupply of fluid to vthe cylinder 21 rotates the arms 35 of the lever 33 forwardly, thus urging the rearward ends of the links 31 upwardly to lift the implement and diminish its resistance to forward movement, while at the same time imposing a portion of the weight of the implement upon the rearward end of the tractor 2| and increasing its traction. l The mechanism hereinbefore described and its operation are disclosed in the Ferguson patents hereinbefore referred to. in accordance with my invention the rearward ends of the links 31 are not secured to an implement but are pivotaily secured by pins 49a to return bars 49, which extend forwardly to adjacent the connection of the rods 36 to the links 31. The forward ends of the return bars 49 are secured between a crossbar 50 and a transverse shaft l. Metal straps 52 are secured to the ends of the transverse shaft 5| and are connected at their rearward ends to a stirrup member 53. The ends of the transverse shaft 5| and the forward ends of the metal straps 52 are attached to bracket members 54, which are secured to longitudinal members 55 of a lever or sub-frame 56. The rearward ends of the stirrups 53 are piv' oted between lugs 51 carried by a front frame connection 58 in the form of an angle. The angle 58 is adapted Ifor attachment to the transverse member of a front gang of a two-gang disc harrow in a manner which will be described. Adjacent its center, the angle 58 is provided with forwardly extending lugs 59 to which the lower ends of arms 69 of the yoke 48 are pivoted. The yoke 48 includes the arms 6|), which converge upwardly, and a transverse brace 6| extending between them adjacent the lugs 59. The arms 69 are provided with a plurality of aligned openings 62 for the receptin of a bolt 62a to connect the link 41 to the yoke 48 at various levels. Pivoted between th'e upper portion of the arms 6|] is a bearing 63. 4A s'haft 64 is rotatably mounted in the bearing 63, so that it is restrained against axial movement relative thereto. The shaft 64 is provided with a crank 65 at its upper end, and its lower end is threaded into a sleeve 66 connected to a bracket 61 pivoted to a lug 68. The lug 68 is mounted upon a plate 69 secured by a bolt 16 to a rear transverse member 1| of a front frame 12 of a drag device or trailing device in the form of a two-gang disc harrow 13. A plurality of openings 14 are provided along the rear transverse member 1|, so that the plate 69 may be secured at a plurality of positions along this transverse member 1|. The front frame 12 includes end members 15 and 16 angled to provide parallel portions normal to a shaft 11 connected thereto. The snaft 11 is at the desired working angle with the path of travel of the implement. The endv members 15 and 16 are connected by the rear transverse member`1| and a front transverse member 18. The transverse member 18 is in the form of an angle and is adapted for nesting in the angle 58 previously described. The angles 58 and 18 are provided with a plurality of openings in their vertical legs for the reception of bolts 19, ,so that the front frame. 12 may be secured to the angle 58 in numerous positions of offset or directly behind the tractor 2|. Mounted upon the shaft 11 for rotation thereon are a plurality of discs 89 separated by spacing spools 8|. Attached to the front frame 12 is a rear frame 82 which includes a front transverse 'member 83 in the form of an angle, the vertical leg of which is adapted for being clamped to the vertical leg of the rear transverse member 1| of the front frame 12 by bolts 84 passing therethrough. A plurality of openings 85 for the bolts 88 are provided in the legs of both the transverse members -1| and 83, so that the rear frame 82 may be moved transversely to any desired position relative to the front frame 12 and secured thereto. The rear frame 82 includes also a rear transverse Vmember 88 in the fnrm of an angle and end members 81 and 88. The end member 81 is secured to the rear transf verse member 86 at right angle thereto and to the front transverse member 83 at an obtuse angle, the end member 88 connectingthe opposite ends of these transverse members and `being provided with a portion 89 at right angle to the rear transverse member 86. Connecting the portion 89 of the end member 88 and the end member 81 is a shaft 90 upon which are rotatably mounted a plurality of discs 9| held in their proper spaced relationship by spools 92. The shaft 98, like the shaft 11, makes an angle equal to the desired working angle with the transverse members 83, 1|, and '18. A suitable working angle may be of the order of 20. The lower ends of the longitudinal members 55 of the subframe 56 are attached to the stirrup member 53 and extend forwardly to adiacent the front axle 23 where they are connected by a transverse bar 91. A transverse brace 98 connects the longitudinal members 55 near their forward ends and a cylindrical pin 96 attached to the brace 98 at its center extends through the transverse bar 91 and forwardly of a plate 99 attached by arms |00 to the frame 22 of the tractor 2|. The plate 99 is attached by bolts IDI to a rearward plate |92 having transversely elon.. gated openings 93 for the reception of .the bolts |0| to permit the transverse adjustment of the plates 99 and |02. p Secured to the rearward plate |02 are depending lugs |03 connected by pins |94 and |05 upon each of which there is mounted a roller |06 of hourglass form. The rollers |05 are spaced to receive between them the pin 96 to restrain motion of the pin 96 and the forward part of the subframe 56 transversely relative tothe tractor frame 22, while permitting the subframe 56 to move longitudinally relative to the frame 22. The spring 43 of the automatic depth control mechanism 39 customarily employed upon such tractors is made of such resistance to deformation as to be compressed sufciently to automatically lift the attached implement. This automatic lifting of such a conventional implement results from the increased resistance to forward motion of the implement, urging the link 41 forwardly, compressing the spring 43, and telescoping thevalve member 40 to supply fluid under pressure to the cylinder 21 and thus through the lever 33 and rods 36, vlifting the links 31 and attached implement upwardly. In the event that the weight of the implement attached to the tractor 2| and the automatic depth control mechanism 39, or the moment of such implement exerted upon the depth control mechanism is greater than the Weight or such moment of the conventional implement for which the depth control mechanism is designed, it is necessary to apply a compensating force to the spring 43 although the implement offers a resistance to forward motion substantially equal to the resistance to forward motion of such a conventional implement penetrating the soil to the same depth. Likewise, in the event that there is attached to the tractor 2| and the depth control mechanism 39 an implement of substantially the same weight as such a conventional implement, but which, due to its type of construction or means of attachment to the tractor or depth control mechanism, offers less resistance to forward motion when penetrating the soil to the desired maximum depth than such an instrument of conventional construction, it is necessary to apply a compensating force to the spring 43. This compensating force is of such value that the spring 43, under these varying conditions, will permit movement of the telescoping valve member 40 to automatically control the depth in the same manner as when such a conventional implement is employed. Due to the fact that the harrow 13 is of considerably greater weight than such a conventional implement for which the depth control mechanism 39 is designed, it is necessary to compensate the spring 43 by compressing it an amount which is a function of such difference in weight. The automatic depth control mechanism thus far described is provided with a compensating mechanism adapted for compensating the spring 43 when there is attached to the depth control mechanism an implement of greater weight or one offering less resistance to forward motion than such a conventional implement. This mechanism |I| includes a plate |01 having formed thereon a bracket |01a secured to the I tractor 2| by bolts |01b. The plate |01 has mounted thereon a pivot pin |08 projecting rearwardly therefrom substantially parallel to and above the valve member 40. A plate |09 is loosely mounted upon the pin |08 and is provided with legs |09a projecting around the valve member 40 in contact with the rearward side of the collar 444 The legs |0911 are urged forwardly, and the uper end of the plate |09 is urged rearwardly by an auxiliary pressure means in the form of a compression spring ||0 retained in place between the plates |01 and |09 by an inwardly extending projection or boss ||0a provided upon each of them. A nut ||2 is threaded upon the pivot pin |08 against the plate |09, so that the plate |09 is caused to compress the spring 43 suciently to compensate for the increased weight of the harrow 13 over the weight of the conventional implement for which the depth control mechanism 39 is designed. While the compensating mechanism of my invention has been described with specific reference to a disc harrow attached to the tractor and the automatic depth control mechanism of the tractor, it will be understood that this compensa-ting mechanism may with equal advantage be employed in connection with any pulling device having thereon an automatic depth control or lifting mechanism and in connection with any trailing device which is of greater weight than, or exerts upon the automatic depth control or lifting mechanism a moment greater than, the weight or moment of the trailing device for which the control or lifting mechanism is designed or any trailing device which, although of approximately the same weight and exerting approximately the same moment upon the control or lifting mechanism as the trailing device for which such control or lifting mechanism was designed, offers less resistance to forward motion than the device for which the control or lifting mechanism was designed. The harrow being in the operative position illustrated in Fig. 1, draft force is applied to the harrow through the transverse shaft 5l, straps 52, stirrup member 53, bracket member 54, subframe 56, and lugs 51, which may be regarded as draft means. When this draft force necessary to propel the harrow increases as the harrow passes over softer ground, the links 31 swing upwardly and through the yoke 48 4and the link 41 moves the valve member 40 to a more collapsed position, thus supplying fluid under pressure to the piston 21. This fluid forces the piston 3| outwardly, swinging the arms 35 of the lever 33 forwardly and pulling the rods 36 and the links 31 upwardly, the lever 33, rods 36, and links 31 and 41 constituting an elevating linkage, and the return bars 49, crossbar 50.1transverse shaft 5|, straps 52, stirrup members 53, and lugs 51 constituting a first linkage, and the yoke 48, bearing 63, shaft 64, sleeve 66. and bracket 61 constituting a second linkage, .the two linkages together constituting a linkage connecting the implement to the power lift mechanism so that the implement may be drawn by the tractive vehicle and lifted by the power lift mechanism. The upward movement of the links 31 causes the harrow to be elevated to penetrate the ground to a. lesser depth, thus reducing the draft pull necessary to propel it to that predetermined value determined by the resistance of the spring 43 opposed by the spring I0 to the collapsing of the valve member 40. The lifting of the implement imposes upon the tractor .2| a part of the weight of the implement, increasing the pressure of the rear wheels 26 against the ground and thus increasing the traction of the tractor. When harder ground is encountered and the draft pull necessary to propel the tractor has diminished below the predetermined value for which the springs 43 and I I0 are set, the spring 43 urges the plate |09 rearwardly, moving the valve member 40 to extended position and permitting the harrow to be lowered by gravity relative to the tractor to penetrate the ground to a greater depth. The front frame 12 and the rear frame 62 of the harrow 13 being rigidly connected together and the front frame 12 being lifted and lowered substantially vertically by this automatic depth control operation, the two frames 12 and 82 are maintained in substantially the same plane through the elevation and lowering. When it is desired to elevate the disc barrow 13 from its operative position illustrated in Fig. 1 to its transporting position illustrated in Fig. 3, the control lever 29 is actuated by the operator from his place on the tractor to cause iiuid under pressure to be admitted to the line 28 and cylinder 21, moving the piston 3| outwardly and swinging the arms 35 of thelever 33 forwardly. This exerts tension on the rods 36 and causes the links 31, crossbar 50, and transverse bar 5| to swing upwardly. The front frame 12, being connected to the transverse shaft 5|, and through the yoke 48 and link. 41 to the tractor, is thus moved upwardly, and the rear frame 13, being rigidly connected to the front frame 12, is likewise elevated so that the discs 30 and 9i of the two frames remain in substantially the same plane. When it is desired to lower the disc harrow 13 to its operative position, it is necessary only for the operator to manipulate the control lever 29 so that the` fluid under pressure in the cylinder 21 is permitted to iiow through the outlet line 36 to the storage tank of the system, whereupon the weight of the disc harrow 13 causes it to descend to a depth of ground penetration predetermined by the setting of the automatic depth control mechanism 39. If at any chosen depth o'f penetration or degree of offset of the disc harrow 13 relative to the longitudinal axis of the tractor 2| the operator finds that the narrow is exerting any side draft or transverse forces upon the tractor, they are readily overcome by his manipulation of the crank 35 operating connecting means which includes the yoke 48, bearing l63, shaft 64, sleeve 66, and bracket 61. Thus, when the disc harrow 13 is offset to the right of the tractor 2|, looking in the direction ci travel, if there is any tendency for the side draft o-r transverse forces of the harrovv upon the tractor to cause the tractor to veer to the right, this tendency may be overcome by rotation of the crank 65 in such direction as to lengthen the distance between the lug 68 and the yoke 43 to thus permit fthe rear gang to penetrate the ground to a greater depth. Such deeper penetration increases the side draft or transverse forces applied by the disc harrow 13 to the tractor 2|, tending to cause it to veer to the left, resulting in an equilibrium of such forces, permitting the tractor to follow a perfectly straight course without special attention from the operator. Such side draft or transverse forces may be overcome also by adjusting the relative positions of the plates 99 and |02 to move the point of attachment of the subframe 56 transversely/on the tractor 2|. This is accomplished by loosening the bolts ii and moving the plate |62 laterally and securing it in its desired position by the bolts lili. Thus, if the side draft or transverse forces exerted by the harrow in offset position upon the tractor tend to cause the tractor to veer to the right, the rearward plate |02 is moved to theA right of itscentral position. This causes the upward force exerted by the pin 96 upon the tractor 2| to be exerted to greater extent upon the right front wheel than upon the left front wheel, thus overcoming the tendency of the harrow to turn to the right. Suchen upward force is directed by the pin 96 as a result of the tendency of the weight of the barrow 13 to rotate the forward end of the subframe 66 upwardly whenever any of the weight of the narrow is supported by the tractor. By such a transverse movement of the point of application of this upwardly directed force, the side draft or transverse forces resulting from the operation of the harrow in any degree of offset can be completely overcome by the manipulation of the crank 65, as previously described, while securing any desired depth of penetration of the discs. Inasmuch as the return bars 49, crossbar 56, and transverse shaft 5| cause the weight of the harrow 13 to be applied to the links 31 immediately adjacent the connection of the links 31 to the rods 36. instead of at the ends of the links A31 which are at a distance from such points of connection substantially equal to the distance between such points and the pivoted ends of the links 31 and cause the transverse frame members 18 and 83 always to remain at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the tractor, thus permitting the center of gravity of the harrow 13 to be as close as possible to the tractor, itv will be seen that the implement and hitch of my invention provide a linkage by which an implement of w the maximum weight may be lifted with the application of the minimum force through the rods 36. Such features permit an implement, such as the disc harrow 13, to be elevated either to vary its depth of cut or to transport it in inoperative position with the minimum power from the elevating mechanism. Whenever any of the weight of the barrow 13 is carried by the tractor 2|, an upwardly directed force is exerted upon the tractor, since the barrow 13 is suspended behind the tractor. This upwardly directed force is applied by the pin 96 at a point substantially ln alignment with the front axle 23. The application of this force at such point provides a lever arm of maximum length, since this point is spaced as far forwardly as possible from the points of connection of the rods 36 to the links 31. The implement and hitch of my invention therefore apply the upwardly directed force resulting from the lifting of the implement with the greatest possible mechanical advantage, so that such force is of the minimum value. This upwardly directed force, if applied adjacent to the rear wheels of the tractor. would have a component or moment tending to lift the rear wheels of the tractor and impair the traction of the tractor. From the foregoing it will be seen that the implement and hitch of my invention reduce to a minimum the component of such upwardly directed force which is applied to the rear wheels, impairing their traction. by exerting this force as near as possible to the front wheels of the tractor. The side draft forces applied to the tractor by the harrow in operation are applied to the links 31 and rods 36 adjacent their connection with each other instead of at the ends of the links 31, so that the moment of these forces tending to cause the front wheels to change their direction of travel is greatly reduced. Further, these side draft forces are resisted by the rigid subframe 56 reinforced against deformation. control and elevating mechanism. it will be seen Y that my invention reduces the effect of such forces upon the tractor to a minimum. When it is desired to move the harrow 'I3 to ofl'set position, it is necessary only to remove the -bolts I9 and move the front frame 12 laterally relative to the angle 56 and again connect them by the bolts 19 and in a similar manner shift the connection of the plate 69 to the rear transverse member 'Il of the front frame 12. Because the front transverse members 18 and 83 of the frames l2 and 82 are at all times at rightangles to the longitudinal axis of the tractor 2|, the movement of the harrow 13 to a positionof any degree of offset and movement of the frames relative to each other do not change thedistance between the center of gravity of the harrow 13 and the. control mechanism of the tractor 2I, so that the force required to elevate the implement to vary its depth of cut or to move it to transporting position remains constant for all of its positions of offset and al1 of the relative positions of the two gangs. When it is desired to disconnect the implement and hitch of my invention from the tractor, it is necessary to remove the pins 49a from the links 31 and to remove the bolt connecting the link 41 to the yoke 48, whereupon the tractor may be driven forwardly until the pin 96 is moved out of contact with the rollers |06. It will be apparent that the implement and hitch of my invention may be again attached to the tractor 2| with equal facility. The compression of the spring 43 by the plate |09 due to the action of the spring ||0 counteracts the effect upon the action of the spring 43 resulting from the excess of the weight of the harrow 13 over the lighter implement custom arily employed with the depth control mechanism 39, so that it operates with this greater weight in the same manner that it operated with the lesser weight. In Figs. '1 to 11, inclusive, which illustrate another embodiment of implement and hitch of my invention, also capable of performing the objects and providing the advantages hereinbefore `set forth, like numbers are employed to indicate elements like those illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6 and previously described. In this embodiment of my invention draft force is applied to the disc harrow 13 at the front end of the subframe 56 instead of through the return bars 49, the subframe 56, bracket members 54. stirrup member 53, straps 52, transverse shaft and lugs 51 acting as draft means. The transverse bar 91a passes through a housing ||3 through which a transverse member ||4 also extends with its ends connected by hangers H5 to the frame 22 of the tractor 2|. The housing ||3 extends rearwardly of the transverse member 91a and is provided with rearwardly extending shafts H6. A roller ||1 is secured upon each of the shafts ||6 for rotation relative thereto. The rollers ||1 are hourglass in form and spaced to receive between them a transverse brace |29 which is connected to the longitudinal members 55 of the subframe 56. The transverse bar 91a is provided with a rack ||8 which projects forwardly therefrom. A similar rack ||9 is provided on the transverse member ||4 and projects rearwardly therefrom. Gearsv |20 and |2| are disposed within the housing ||3 and mesh with the racks ||8 and H9. respectively, and with each other. The gear |20 is rotatably mounted upon a pin |22 which is f secured in the housing ||3.A The gear |2| is non' rotatably mounted upon a shaft |23 which has secured thereto a driving gear |24. A worm gear |26 is mounted upon a shaft |25 in the housing ||3 for rotation by a flexible shaft connected thereto and extending through a flexible conduit |25a to a hand wheel |20 mounted upon the tractor 2| within reach of the driver. With the construction describedthe driver of the tractor may by rotation of the hand wheel "|28 rotatethe worm gear .|26, thus driving the driving gear |24 and causing the shaft |23 to rotate. The rotation of the shaft |23 causes the meshing ygears |20 and |2| to rotate in opposite directions, and these gears, meshing with the racks ||8 and IIS, travel along the racks in the same direction and at the same rate of speed. As the housing moves transversely of the tractor 2| the rollers ||1 roll along the transverse brace |20, retaining the housing ||3 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tractor 2| during its travel. In this manner the driver of the tractor may, during travel of the tractor, alter the point at which forces are applied by the subframe 56 to the tractor. Whenever the disc harrow 13 is moved vertically relative to the 'tractor 2| in the embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6, there is longitudinal movement of the subframe 56 causing the pin 96 to move longitudinally upon the rollers |06. In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs. 7 to 11, however,'the forward end of the subframe 56 is restrained against longitudinal movement relative to the tractor 2|. In this form of my invention horizontal move-- ment of the harrow during its vertical movement relative to the tractor 2| is `permitted by providing an elongated opening |21 in each of the return bars 49 for the reception of the pin 49a connecting it tothe link 31- The movement of the pins 49a in the elongated slots |21 permits a relative horizontal movement of the links 31 together with the tractor 2|, to which they are connected, and the return bars 4l together with the subframe 56 to which they arotonnected. While the harrow illustrated and described as an illustrative embodiment of my invention is a two-gang disc harrow, it will be apparent that my invention may with equal facility be applied to and employed with a multiple-gang disc harrow. While those embodiments of my invention hereinbefore illustrated and described are fully capable of performing the objects and providing the advantages hereinbefore stated, there arc various other embodiments likewise capable of performing these objects and providing these advantages, and I therefore wish my invention to be understood as not restricted to the specific embodiments hereinbefore described. I claim as my invention: 1. Means for hitching a trailing device to a pulling device, which includes: draft means for coupling the two devices together; and vmeans manually operable by the driver of the pulling device during travel of such devices and adapted for varying the elevation of the rearward end of the trailing device relative toits forward end and the pulling device. 2. In a hitch for connecting a trailing device having forward and rearward ground-engaging members to a tractlve device, the combination of draft means for coupling the two devices together; connecting means variable in length connecting the trailing device to the tractive device and adapted on variation in length for varying the relative pressures of contact with the ground of the forward and rearward ground engaging members; and means operable by the driver of the tractive device during travel of the devices and adapted for varying the length of said connecting means. 3. In a hitch for connecting a disc harrow including a. front gang of discs and a rear gang of discs to a tractor provided with an elevating linkage for lifting the harrow, the combination of: draft means connecting the harrow to the linkage, whereby the harrow is drawn in operative position; connecting means connected to the linkage and to the harrow at a point spaced from 'the connection of said draft means to the harrow, said connecting means including a member adapted for movement relative to said draft means, whereby the rear gang may be moved vertically relative to the front gang; and means for moving said member, whereby the relative values of the side draft forces of the front and rear gangs are varied. v 4. In a hitch for connecting an implement to a tractor having a power lift mechanism for lifting the implement, the combination of: a linkage connecting the implement and mechanism, where by the implement is drawn by the tractor and lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly connected to a part of said linkage and extending forwardly therefrom; and means connecting said lever to the tractor, whereby the weight of the forward portion of the tractor is applied in opposition to the lifted weight of the implement. 5. In a hitch for connecting an implement to a tractor having a power lift mechanism for lifting the implement, the combination` of: a linkage connecting the implement and mechanism, whereby the implement is drawn by the tractor and lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly connected to a part of said linkage and extending forwardly therefrom; and means connecting said lever to the tractor, whereby the weight of the forward portion of the tractor is applied in opposition to the lifted weight of the implement, said means being adjustable for moving such connection transversely of the tractor. 6. In a hitch for connecting an implement to a tractor having a power lift mechanism for lifting the implement, the combination of: a linkage connecting the implement and mechanism, whereby the implement is drawn by the tractor and lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly connected to a part of said linkage and extending forwardly therefrom; means connecting said lever to the tractor, whereby the weight of the forward portion of the tractor is applied in opposition to the lifted weight of the implement; and means operable by the driver of the tractor and associated with said connecting means and adapted for affecting the direction of travel of the tractor by moving said connecting means transversely of the tractor. 7. In a hitch for connecting an implement to a tractor having a power lift mechanism for lifting the implement, the combination of: a linkage connecting the implement and mechanism, whereby the implement is drawn by the tractor and lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly con-v nected to a part of said linkage and extending forwardly therefrom; and-means so connecting said lever to the tractor as to restrain said lever against transverse movement while permitting its longitudinal movement relative to the tractor, whereby the weight of the forward portion of the tractor is applied in opposition to the lifted weight of the implement. 8. In a hitch for connecting an implement to a tractor having a power lift mechanism actuating elevator levers for lifting the implement, the combination of a linkage connecting the elevator levers to the implement adjacent its sides, whereby the implement may be drawn by the tractor and elevated by the lift mechanism; a rigid frame including two longitudinal members rigidly connected to said linkage and extending forwardly therefrom; and means connecting said frame to the tractor, whereby the weight of the forward portion of the tractor is applied in opposition to the lifted weight of the implement. 9. In a hitch for connecting an implement to a tractor having elevator levers pivoted to the tractor and pull rods connected to such levers and a power lift mechanism for lifting the implement, the combination of: arst linkage connecting the elevator levers adjacent their connection to the pull rods to the implement; and means connecting the tractor to the implement including a second linkage connected to the implement rearwardly of its connection to said first linkage. 10. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for connection to a tractor having a power lift mechanism connected to elevator levers for lifting the harrow and an automatic depth control lever responsive to variationsl in draft for actuating such mechanism, the combination of: a rear gang of discs; a front gang of discs; means connecting said gangs rigidly together; a first linkage connecting the forward portion of said front gang to said elevator levers adjacent their connection to the lift mechanism; means connecting the tractor to said gangs including a second linkage connected to said gangs rearwardly of the connection of said first linkage; and means operable independently of the lift mechanism for varying the relative depth of cut of the discs of the said gangs by varying the effective length of said second linkage. 11. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for connection to a tractor having a power lift mechanism connected to elevator levers for lifting the harrow and an automatic depth control lever responsive to variations in draft for actuating such mechanism, the combination of a rear gang of discs; a front gang of discs; means connecting said gangs rigidly together; a first linkage connecting the forward portion of said front gang to said elevator` levers adjacent their connection to the lift mechanism; means connecting the tractor to said gangs including a second linkage connected to said gangs rearwardly of the connection of said first linkage; means operable independently of the lift mechanism for varying the relative depth of cut of the discs of the said gangs by varying the effective length of said second linkage; a lever connected to said first linkage and extending forwardly therefrom; and means connecting said lever to the tractor near its forward end, whereby the weight of the forward portion of the tractor resists the moment on the tractor of the lifted weight of the implement. 12. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for connection to a tractor having a power lift mechanism connected to elevator levers for lifting the harrow and an automatic depth control lever 15 responsive to variations in draft for actuating such mechanism, the combination of a rear gang of discs; a front gang of discs; means connecting said gangs rigidly together; a first linkage connecting the forward portion of said front gang to said elevator levers adjacent their connection to the lift mechanism; means connecting the tractor to said gangs including a second linkage connected to said gangs rearwardly of the connection of said first linkage; means operable independently of the lift mechanism for varying the relative depth of cut of the discs of the said gangs by varying the effective length of said second linkage; a lever connected to said first linkage and extending forwardly therefrom; means connecting said lever to the tractor near its forward end, whereby the weight of the forward portion of the tractor resists the moment on the tractor of the lifted weight of the implement; and means for affecting the path of travel of the tractor by shifting said lever connecting means transversely of the tractor. 13. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for connection to a tractor having a power lift mechanism connected to elevator levers for lifting the harrow and an automatic depth control lever responsive to variations in draft for actuating such mechanism, the combination of: a front frame; a rear frame; a gang of discs so mounted in each of said frames that the front of each frame and the rear of said front frame are at right angles to the path of travel of the tractor; a first linkage connecting the forward portion of said front gang to said elevator levers adjacent their connection to the lift mechanism; and means connecting the tractor to said gangs including a second linkage connected to said gangs rearwardly of the connection of said rst linkage. 14. Means for hitching a, trailing drag device to a pulling device whereby the drag device may be pulled by the pulling device, which includes: draft means for coupling the two devices together; and means operably connected to the drag device and to the pulling device and operable by the driver of the pulling device for varying the elevation of the rearward end of the drag device relative to its forward end and the pulling device. 15. Means for hitching a trailing device to a pulling device, which includes: draft means coupling the two devices together; means controllable by the operator of the pulling device during travel for swinging the trailing device about a. first axis, whereby the trailing device is moved substantially vertically relative to the pulling device; and means operable by the operator of the pulling device during travel for swinging the trailing device about a second axis spaced from said first axis, whereby the elevation of the rearward end of the trailing device is varied relative to its forward end. 16. In an implement and hitch for connection to a tractor and a power lift mechanism connected to elevator levers for lifting the implement and an automatic depth control lever responsive to variations in draft for actuating such mechanism, the combination of a front frame; a rear frame; ground-engaging members mounted in each of said frames, said frames being so formed that the front of each frame and the rear of said front frame are at right angles to the pathof travel of the tractor; a first linkage connecting the forward portion of said front frame to said elevator levers adjacent their connection to the lift mechanism; and means connecting the tractor to said frames including a second linkage connected to said frames rearwardly of the connection of said first linkage. 17. A combination as in claim 1 including: means for lifting both the rearward end of the draft means and the trailing device. 18. A combination to be used with a tractor having an elevating linkage and comprising: an implement adapted to be drawn by the tractor and having forward and rearward ground-engaging members, said implement tending to produce side draft when drawn by said tractor in certain positions; draft means movably connected with said implement and adapted to be connected with said tractor for drawing said implement, and with said elevating means for lifting the implement; connecting means directly connected with the implement and adapted for connection with said elevating means, whereby the rearward ground-engaging members may be moved vertically relative to the forward ground-engaging members to equalize draft; and actuating means for said connecting means to produce said relative movement. 19. A combination according to claim 18 wherein said connecting means is constructed for variation in effective length, said actuating means including meansl operable independently of the operation of the elevating means for varying said effective length. CHARLES H. MARTIN.

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Cited By (29)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2437875-AMarch 16, 1948Ferguson Harry IncAutomatic depth control for groundworking implements
    US-2440550-AApril 27, 1948Howard B Rapp And Sally RappTractor-conveyed implement and hitch therefor
    US-2456693-ADecember 21, 1948Frank M FragaLifting hitch for implements
    US-2460847-AFebruary 08, 1949Harold W SchwarzImplement balance control link spring
    US-2499988-AMarch 07, 1950Virgil L CoxHarrow attachment for plows
    US-2532637-ADecember 05, 1950Clarence E NewkirkHitch
    US-2551870-AMay 08, 1951Jr Floyd R BridgerFlexible tractor planter attaching assembly
    US-2567736-ASeptember 11, 1951Deere & CoQuicly attachable implement
    US-2567737-ASeptember 11, 1951Deere & CoFlexibly connected tractor-mounted implement
    US-2575622-ANovember 20, 1951Frank M FragaPickup implement
    US-2578942-ADecember 18, 1951Phillips Foundry CompanyReversible disk plow for tractors
    US-2583830-AJanuary 29, 1952Massey Harris CoTractor lift disk harrow
    US-2587763-AMarch 04, 1952Rimple Mfg CoAdjustable hitch for direct connected implements
    US-2640708-AJune 02, 1953Frank M FragaCombination hitch
    US-2645072-AJuly 14, 1953Ferguson Harry IncPosition control apparatus for beet harvesters
    US-2663239-ADecember 22, 1953Towner Mfg CoPower-lift tractor hitch for earth working implements
    US-2664804-AJanuary 05, 1954Allis Chalmers Mfg CoTractor drawbar support
    US-2683960-AJuly 20, 1954Jabez A LoveLift type disk harrow
    US-2685241-AAugust 03, 1954Deere & CoQuick detachable implement
    US-2687680-AAugust 31, 1954Howard B Rapp, Jessica M Rapp, George A Sattler, Marie A Sattler, Basil R Twist, Mifflin K Thomas, Howard B Rapp JrGround supported implement and hitch therefor
    US-2688283-ASeptember 07, 1954Jabez A LoveLift type agricultural implement
    US-2722873-ANovember 08, 1955Ford Motor CoTractor hydraulic system
    US-2726589-ADecember 13, 1955Massey Harris Ferguson IncHitch stabilizer
    US-2762284-ASeptember 11, 1956Frank M FragaTractor-mounted hitch
    US-2765610-AOctober 09, 1956Deere & CoDisk harrow
    US-2787944-AApril 09, 1957Reynold M MeyerImplement lift
    US-2841067-AJuly 01, 1958Masick C MagarianHitch structures
    US-2842040-AJuly 08, 1958Allis Chalmers Mfg CoDraft means and depth control for ground working implements
    US-3182730-AMay 11, 1965Anderson Dunham IncLoad controlling hitch assembly for hydraulic depth-controlled, trailing implements